Physiological and Biochemical evaluation of fungi degraded date pits in diminution of Aflatoxicosis in Oreochromis niloticus.
Aflatoxins are a group of most toxic mycotoxins considerable interest in aquaculture, agriculture, livestock communities. The problem of using contaminated fish feeds by aflatoxin exerts a negative economic impact on relevant commerce as well as severe health problems as they remain as residues in animal tissues, thus affects the human metabolic system on being consumed. This shown the serious effects of aflatoxins on liver, kidney, gills, muscles of fish in aquaculture.
Our study aim to introduce a safe novel cheap by-product as a nutrient for fish with high biological impact and to investigate the potential use of fungi degraded date pits (FDDP) in diminution of hepatotoxicosis that occurred in oreochromis niloticus during aflatoxicosis.
FDDP diet and control one were phytochemically screened for phenolics, flavonoids, carbohydrates and amino acids contents and it was found that FDDP diet extract was rich source for polyphenolic compounds and carbohydrates content than control one. Also, cholinergic effect of both diets was examined and it was found that FDDP diet increased the activity of acetylcholine esterase so it acted as AChE activator.
The routine liver function tests showed the serious effect of aflatoxin injection on hepatocytes where it elevated liver enzymes, on the other hand only FDDP diet administration re-adjusted the enzymes and approached the normal enzymatic level.
Aflatoxin G1 increased glucose, urea, uric acid levels but decreased creatinine and total protein levels than those of other control groups. While, FDDP co-administration with AFG1 showed normal protein level, creatinine level. Furthermore, showed nearly normal urea and uric acid.
Non-enzymatic and enzymatic liver antioxidants enzymes were affected with aflatoxin G1 injection as GST and SOD showed the lowest activities among all groups. Treated group with FDDP diet increased GST and SOD activities.
Moreover, aflatoxin elevated TBARS and NO to maximum peaks and XO activity in moderate figure. Treated group with FDDP diet intake successfully decreased these abnormalities near to sham control group.
Energy status (Total ATPase) in liver in all experimental groups was lower than that of sham control, while Na+-K+-ATPase activity in induced group showed the lowest level comparing to all other experimental groups, while treated group with FDDP diet increased Na+-K+-ATPase activity.
Molecular determination of INOS, COX-II, TNF-alpha and ADAM-17 showed that aflatoxin injection up-regulated gene fold expression, while administration of FDDP diet in treated group regulated genes expression.
In conclusion, our study proved that aflatoxin G1 intake lead to hepatotoxicity through stimulation of oxidative stress and inflammation. FDDP as a new fish diet came from date waste product treated with safe fungi represented as an excellent effect in the reduction of hepatotoxicity induced by AFG1 through its anti-oxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory power.