Anti-inflammatory properties of some detected plant extracts on Lipo-polysaccharide induced inflammation in white blood cells
The present work examined the phytochemicals functional constituents, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of each separate ethanolic plant extract of Tribulus terrestris, Calluna vulgaris, Ferula hermonis, Sonchus oleraceuse-L, Taraxacum officcinale and Erica multiflora. The anti-oxidant effect was measured in vitro using five complementary different methods (DPPH, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion scavenging activity assays and ferric reducing power activity assay). This study measured the ability of the extracts to detoxify the LPS-induced inflammation in white blood cells culture and oxidative stress in vitro. The determination of the anti-inflammatory activities in vitro through human RBCs membrane stabilizing method, the cytotoxicity on human WBCs culture and the effective anti-inflammatory concentrations of each examined ethanolic plant extract on LPS-stimulated WBCs culture (EAICs) were evaluated using MTT assay. The non-enzymatic and enzymatic anti-oxidants in vitro were evaluated using GSH, GPx and SOD specific activity assays in WBCs. Also; the pro-inflammatory mediators were evaluated in vitro using the determination of NO level, lipid peroxidation products level in WBCs and TNF-α level in cell supernatant. Finally, the expression levels of pro-oxidants/pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators such as COX-2, iNOS and GAPDH using RT-PCR. The extracts showed high phenolic and flavonoid, alkaloid and sulphated polysaccharide content. The ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris was found to be the most potent in scavenging DPPH, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion with the highest anti-inflammatory activity and the lowest EAICs. While treatment with Ferula hermonis ethanolic extract ameliorated the depletion of GSH level, GPx specific activity, SOD specific activity and GAPDH expression level, it also significantly suppressed the increase in the level of TBARS, NO and the expression level of both COX-2 and iNOS.